Satsuma Rebellion: Satsuma Clan Samurai Against the Imperial Japanese Army. The line infantry was divided into 14 regiments of three battalions each. When former samurai (shizoku) rose up in separate rebellions in Hagi, Akizuki, and Kumamoto in 1876, Saigô spoke of his moral support for these rebellions, but remained uninvolved. By August 17, the Satsuma army had been reduced to 3000 combatants, and had lost most of its modern firearms and all of its artillery. On a muddy field outside Kagoshima on September 25, 1877, the feudal system that had dominated Japan for 700 years died, not with a whimper but with a defiant roar. The men were captured, and under torture, conf… It’s very interesting. Known in Japanese as the Seinan Sensô, or "Southwestern War," the rebellion was led by Saigô Takamori of Satsuma han (Kagoshima prefecture), and involved roughly 15,000 former samurai facing off against around 100,000 Imperial Japanese Army troops. Plaque at site of Saigô's death, Shiroyama, Kagoshima. However, the Satsuma army was able to cut its way free from encirclement. Japan was divided into six military districts: Tokyo, Sendai, Nagoya, Osaka, Hiroshima and Kumamoto, with two or three regiments of infantry, plus artillery and other auxiliary troops, assigned to each district. The government, however, refused to negotiate. He was responsible for the suppression of the Satsuma rebellion in 1877 (Seinan wars). On the same day, Saigō met with his lieutenants Kirino Toshiaki and Shinohara Kunimoto and announced his intention of marching to Tokyo to ask questions of the government. On February 19, the first shots of the war were fired as the defenders of Kumamoto castle opened fire on Satsuma units attempting to force their way into the castle. At the height of the battle, Saigō wrote a private letter to Prince Arisugawa, restating his reasons for going to Tokyo. Its name comes from the Satsuma Domain, which had been influential in the Restoration and became home to unemployed samurai after military reforms rendered their status obsolete. On his return to Kobe on February 12, Hayashi met with General Yamagata Aritomo and Itō Hirobumi, and it was decided that the Imperial Japanese Army would need to be sent to Kagoshima to prevent the revolt from spreading to other areas of the country sympathetic to Saigō. Although Satsuma Domain had been one of the key players in the Meiji Restoration and the Boshin War, and although many men from Satsuma had risen to influential positions in the new Meiji government, there was growing dissatisfaction with the direction the country was taking. The “training” provided was not purely academic: although the Chinese classics were taught, all students were required to take part in weapons training and instruction in tactics. What Are the Temperature Limits for the Satsuma Plant?. The following day, Hayashi declared to Oyama that he could not permit Kawamura to go ashore when the situation was so unsettled, and that the attack on Takao constituted an act of lèse-majesté. The 2003 Tom Cruise movie "The Last Samurai" is loosely based upon the events of the Satsuma Rebellion, but is largely ahistorical. The Satsuma samurai were initially organized into six battalions of 2,000 men each. Oct 13, 2020 - Explore TayCon's board "Asian/Pacific Theatre" on Pinterest. Support for Saigō was so strong that Satsuma had effectively seceded from the central government by the end of 1876. Following the Seikanron in 1873, in which Saigô's desires to invade Korea were overruled by other members of the inner circles of government, Saigô resigned from the government and returned to Satsuma, where his private academy became a center for samurai discussions of displeasure with the government. Jun 21, 2018 - Explore Alex Hada's board "Satsuma Rebellion (Southwestern war)" on Pinterest. Satsuma Rebellion~ Feburary 1877. Ravina said that the war's scope was much farther than Satsuma, and he characterizes the event as being closer to a civil war than a rebellion. However, Yamagata was determined to leave nothing to chance. Each side had suffered more than 4,000 killed or wounded. The battles that made up the Boshin War transpired at different places between Toba Fushimi and Hakodate. The rebellion has been described as the last gasp of the samurai, and as a defining or culminating event in the establishment of military conscription and of the Imperial Japanese Army. Katsumoto is a fictional counterpart to Saigo Takamori, who led the Satsuma Rebellion, and is generally thought of as the "last true Samurai". In the Anime; Seta Sōjirō assassinated him and the clansmen took responsibility for the murder for political reasons. Each battalion was divided into ten companies of 200 men. Gathering allies along the way, the Satsuma rebels moved into action, and began to make their way north, with intentions of seizing Kumamoto castle. Yamagata also landed a detachment with two infantry brigades and 1,200 policemen behind the rebel lines, so as to fall on them from the rear from Yatsushiro Bay. Hara Shobo, 1987, Chapter 1) asking him to surrender, Yamagata ordered a full frontal assault on September 24, 1877. Saigō also started an artillery school. Imperial forces emerged victorious, but with heavy casualties on both sides. Saigô was officially named a rebel by the Meiji government on February 20, and his army of roughly 15,000 former samurai reached Kumamoto two days later, marching on the castle amid the worst snowstorm in some fifty years. To aid in the air of legality, Saigō wore his army uniform. enter image description here In 1878, as the wave of Western culture spreads through Japan, in Nagasaki, Miyo, a girl orphaned in the Satsuma Rebellion works at a curio shop called Vingt. Names, Romanizations, and Spelling (page 2 of 2), Satsuma Rebellion: Satsuma Clan Samurai Against the Imperial Japanese Army, Organization of Imperial and Satsuma Forces, Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office, Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, German pre–World War II industrial co-operation, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Japanese dissidence in 20th-century Imperial Japan, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Satsuma_Rebellion&oldid=995909585, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Buck, James H. "The Satsuma Rebellion of 1877. Imperial army troops under the command of General Yamagata Aritomo and marines under the command of Admiral Kawamura Sumiyoshi began arriving soon after, and the rebels were surrounded. When the plan was rejected, Saigō resigned from all of his government positions in protest and returned to his hometown of Kagoshima, as did many other Satsuma ex-samurai in the military and police forces. See more ideas about world war two, military history, military art. After combat losses and defections, Saigō had onl… A battalion was 672 men strong and was organized as per the line battalions. At the start of the Satsuma Rebellion, the Imperial Japanese Army (including the Imperial Guard) numbered approximately 34,000 men. Anime & Manga Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for anime and manga fans. There were two "regiments" of line cavalry and one "regiment" of imperial guard cavalry. Satsuma Gin and Tonic Add a few tablespoons of Satsuma juice to your gin and tonic. However, Saigō burned his private papers and army uniform on August 19, and slipped away towards Kagoshima with his remaining able-bodied men. In December 1876, the Meiji government sent a police officer named Nakahara Hisao and 57 other men to investigate reports of subversive activities and unrest. Saigō expected both that a war would ultimately be successful for Japan and also that the initial stages of it would offer a means by which the samurai whose cause he championed could find meaningful and beneficial death. Dates: 1877 /2-9. After Saigō rejected a letter dated September 1 from Yamagata drafted by a young Suematsu Kenchō (see M. Matsumura, Pōtsumasu he no michi, pub. of Jack Rudy Tonic, and 4 to 5 oz. Saigo, however, had no regard for the conscripted farm boys who made up the imperial army. The dresses, sewing machines, binoculars, boots, and other items acquired at the Paris Exhibition by the proprietor KOURA Momotoshi have aroused her curiosity. After two days of fruitless attack, the Satsuma forces dug into the rock-hard icy ground around the castle and tried to starve the garrison out in a siege. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Following defeat at the Siege of Kumamoto Castle and in other battles in central KyÅ«shÅ«, the surviving remnants of the samurai forces loyal to Saigō Takamori fled back to Satsuma, seizing the hill of Shiroyama overlooking Kagoshima on 1 September 1877. "[6], Revolt of samurai against the Meiji imperial government. The situation was especially desperate for the defenders as their stores of food and ammunition had been depleted by a warehouse fire shortly before the rebellion began. He led his samurai straight up the middle of Kyushu, planning to cross the straits and march on Tokyo. https://wiki.samurai-archives.com/index.php?title=Satsuma_Rebellion&oldid=33694. On its march to Kumamoto castle, the army was divided into three divisions; a vanguard of 4,000 men, the main division of 4,000 men, and a rearguard of 2,000 men. Jun 25, 2020 - Japanese warriors. The cavalry regiment consisted of 150 men. In addition to the army, the central government also used marines and Tokyo policemen in its struggle against Satsuma. In order to cut Saigō off from his base, an imperial force with three warships, 500 policemen and several companies of infantry, landed in Kagoshima on March 8, seized arsenals and took the Satsuma governor into custody. From Kagoshima Through the Siege of Kumamoto Castle", This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 15:02. [1] Though they succeeded in destroying many of the castle's major buildings, they were ultimately unsuccessful in taking the castle; their siege of Kumamoto castle was brought to an end by a massive force of Imperial Japanese Army soldiers in early March, but despite suffering as much as 90% losses, Saigô's men retreated to Kagoshima via Hitoyoshi, Miyazaki, and Nobeoka, and continued to fight until September. The government had just dealt with several small but violent samurai revolts in Kyūshū, and they found the prospect of rebellion by the numerous and fierce Satsuma samurai, led by the famous and popular Saigō, an alarming one. The men were captured, and under torture, confessed that they were spies who had been sent to assassinate Saigō. However, the Imperial Army was likewise depleted, and fighting was suspended for several weeks to permit reinforcement. Rebellion of the samurai class lead by Saigo Takamori against the corrupt ministers of the emperor and in response to the treatment of former samurai who had lost there place when the Meiji came to power. Legend says that one of his followers, Beppu Shinsuke acted as kaishakunin and aided Saigō in committing seppuku before he could be captured. The Satsuma Rebellion which took place in 1877 was the most famous, and the final major instance out of a series of shizoku rebellions led in the late 1870s by former samurai of southwestern Japan against the prospect of the Meiji government abolishing their elite status and the rice stipends which had traditionally been the samurai's chief or sole source of income. After his failure to take Kumamoto, Saigō led his followers on a seven-day march to Hitoyoshi. Satsuma Rebellion The first test of the young Meiji government came with the revolt of the powerful Satsuma clan based in the southern region of the island of Kyushu. Contemporary illustrations show the cavalry armed with lances. In addition, there were 200 artillerymen and 1,200 laborers. At first, Sato portrays Saitō as a cold, dark, uncaring captain of the Shinsengumi. Some of the little details such as the outlaw of swords for the samurai class and outlaw of top knots were true to the period. From SamuraiWiki. Seared Sea Scallops with Satsuma, Parsley, and Shallot Salsa; Lacquered Flounder; We also love the intense juice from these sweet fruits, so we incorporate the flavors into our guest-worthy cocktails or prepare segments in a cake for gorgeous, winter desserts. Fighting continued into the night. His letter indicated that he was not committed to rebellion and sought a peaceful settlement. Despite Yamagata's efforts over the next several days, Saigō and his remaining 500 men reached Kagoshima on September 1 and seized Shiroyama, overlooking the city. The imperial troops spent several days constructing an elaborate system of ditches, walls and obstacles to prevent another breakout. Facts on Satsumas. On the night of April 8, a force from Kumamoto castle made a sortie, forcing open a hole in the Satsuma lines and enabling desperately needed supplies to reach the garrison. In April 1877, Saigō reorganized the army into nine infantry units of 350 to 800 men each. Tabaruzaka was held by some 15,000 samurai from Satsuma, Kumamoto and Hitoyoshi against the Imperial Army's 9th Infantry Brigade (some 90,000 men). Satsuma Rebellion The imperial government in Tokyo expected Saigo to come to the capital by sea or to dig in and defend Satsuma. Saigō Takamori was labelled as a tragic hero by the people and on February 22, 1889, Emperor Meiji pardoned Saigō posthumously. The police, in units ranging from 300 to 600 men, were mostly ex-samurai (ironically, many of whom were from Satsuma) and were armed only with wooden batons and swords (Japanese police did not carry firearms until the Rice Riots of 1918). The Satsuma Rebellion, also known as the Seinan War was a revolt of disaffected samurai against the new imperial government, nine years into the Meiji Era. In 1878, as the wave of Western culture spreads through Japan, in Nagasaki, Miyo, a girl orphaned in the Satsuma Rebellion works at a curio shop called Vingt. The modernization of the country meant the abolition of the privileged social status of the samurai class, and had undermined their financial position. They were armed with breech-loading Snider rifles and could fire approximately six rounds per minute. The samurai were armed with traditional weapons including swords, polearms, and bows. In February 1877, the Meiji government dispatched Hayashi Tomoyuki, an official with the Home Ministry with Admiral Kawamura Sumiyoshi in the warship Takao to ascertain the situation. However, most of the garrison was from Kyūshū, while a significant number of officers were natives of Kagoshima; their loyalties were open to question. On February 22, the main Satsuma army arrived and attacked Kumamoto castle in a pincer movement. In real life, Ōkubo was murdered by six discontented clansmen on his way to Tokyo. Each battalion consisted of four companies. The rebellion also effectively ended the samurai class, as the new Imperial Japanese Army built of conscripts without regard to social class had proven itself in battle. Saigō's rebellion was the last and most serious of a series of armed uprisings against the new government of the Empire of Japan, the predecessor state to modern Japan. Although Satsuma had been one of the key players in the Meiji Restoration and the Boshin War, and although many men from Satsuma had risen to influential positions in the new Meiji government, there was growing dissatisfaction with the direction the country was taking. (新撰組!, 2004), an ensemble story about the leaders of the titular organization Japan Currency Museum. The author was an British diplomat serving in Japan during the Meiji Restoration and one of his primary tasks was to stay abreast of and report on current events during his posting. [5], Weapons: batons, katanas, Smith and Wesson Model 3, Colt 1851 Navy Revolver, Colt Single Action Army, Winchester Model 1873, Sharps rifle, Enfield Pattern 1853, Mauser Model 1871, Gatling Gun, Parrott rifle, and Armstrong gun. Tabaruzaka was one of the most intense campaigns of the war. After Oyama departed, a flotilla of small ships filled with armed men attempted to board Takao by force, but were repelled. Rather than risk desertions or defections, Tani decided to stand on the defensive. The satsuma mandarin (Citrus reticulata subsp. Battle of Tabaruzaka: Imperial troops on the left, rebel samurai troops on the right, Saigo's army clashes with the government's forces. Jump to: navigation. In an interesting twist, Saigo Takamori of the very pro-Meiji Satsuma Domain later regretted his role in the Meiji Restoration. Saigō was a strong proponent of war with Korea in the Seikanron debate of 1873. A Modern History of Japan from Tokugawa Times to the Present, Second Edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 84. The government had just dealt with several small but violent samurai revolts in KyÅ«shÅ«, and the prospect of the numerous and fierce Satsuma samurai, being led in rebellion by the famous and popular Saigō was alarming. Of course, the forces of the Tokugawa Shogunat… A battalion had 640 men in peacetime and theoretically 960 men in wartime. However, other evidence contradicts this, stating that Saigō in fact died of the bullet wound and then had his head removed by Beppu in order to preserve his dignity. Try one of our favorite sweet satsuma treats and beverages here. During war, the mountain artillery had a nominal strength of 160 men per battery and field artillery had 130 men per battery. It only takes a minute to sign up. Japanese Armies 1868–1877: The Boshin War and Satsuma Rebellion (Men-at-Arms Book 530) - Kindle edition by Esposito, Gabriele, Rava, Giuseppe. Troops were landed at Ōita and Saiki north of Saigō's army, and Saigō was caught in a pincer attack. He ended up being swept into a leadership role in the doomed Satsuma Rebellion, which ended in 1877 with his death. Saigō Takamori Gunmusho (軍務所) banknote, issued in 1877 to finance his war effort. The surviving rebels made a stand on the slopes of Mount Enodake, and were soon surrounded. When the offensive was resumed, Saigo retreated to Miyazaki, leaving behind numerous pockets of samurai in the hills to conduct guerilla attacks. Ravina prefers the English name "War of the Southwest. The main Imperial Army, under General Kuroda Kiyotaka with the assistance of General Yamakawa Hiroshi arrived in Kumamoto on April 12, putting the now heavily outnumbered Satsuma forces to flight. The rebellion lasted from January 29, 1877, until September of that year, when it was decisively crushed and its leader, Saigō Takamori, committed seppuku after being mortally wounded. In peacetime, each company had approximately 160 privates and 32 officers and non-commissioned officers. Mark Ravina, the author of The Last Samurai: The Life and Battles of Saigo Takamori, argued that "Satsuma Rebellion" is not the best name for the war because the English name does not well represent the war and its Japanese name. At one point, he offered to visit Korea in person and to provoke a casus belli by behaving in such an insulting manner that the Koreans would be forced to kill him. The artillery battalion was divided into 2 batteries with 130 men per battery. Everything from the bakumatsu, Shinsengumi, lord Okubo, the Boshin wars, Hajime Saito (one of the best characters in the show for this reason) and even the Satsuma rebellion in 1877 which happens just before the anime and was referenced by Hajime Saito as the reason the govt didn't send the military to take down Shishio. The Satsuma Rebellion, also known as the Seinan War (Japanese: 西南戦争, Hepburn: Seinan Sensō, lit. [3], Saigō Takamori, one of the senior Satsuma leaders in the Meiji government who had supported the reforms in the beginning, was especially concerned about growing political corruption (popular prints depicted the rebel army with banners bearing the words shinsei-kōtoku (新政厚徳, new government, high morality). Main article: Satsuma Rebellion Saigō preparing for war Shortly thereafter, a private military academy known as the Shi-gakkō was established in Kagoshima for the faithful samurai who had also resigned their posts to follow him from Tokyo. Hi I would like to suggest Samurai I: Miyamoto Musashi Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto - Wikipedia I would request you to read the link and about the two sequels. Satsuma, the car the player builds and drives in My Summer Car This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Satsuma . The very rapid and massive changes to Japanese culture, language, dress and society appeared to many samurai to be a betrayal of the jōi ("expel the barbarian") portion of the sonnō jōi justification used to overthrow the former Tokugawa shogunate. ... (satsuma rebellion) because he thought meiji wanted to end samurai by making law that forbid samurai bring katana in public place and etc. With these deaths, the Satsuma rebellion came to an end. On July 24, the Imperial Army forced Saigō out of Miyakonojō, followed by Nobeoka. The international festival successes of such directors as Akira Kurosawa, Kenji Mizoguchi and Hiroshi Inagaki in the 1950s introduced the Japanese period drama to western cinemagoers. During war a company's strength was to be increased to 240 privates. See more ideas about japanese warrior, samurai, samurai art. If you want to follow our favorite ratios, try 2 oz. of Bristow Gin, .75 oz. 2 Army, Colt M1861 Navy, M1841 Mississippi rifle, Sharps Carbine, Springfield Model 1855, Tanegashimas, Bajo-zutsu, and Wooden cannon, In English the most common name for the war is the "Satsuma Rebellion". This influential clan was headed by the Shimazu family, which had been founded by Shimazu Tadahisa, son of Minamoto Yoritomo, in the Kamakura period. This page was last modified on 18 January 2016, at 11:21. The domains of Satsuma and Choshu, in particular, were already considered to be fully modernized, having been equipped with Gatling guns, Minie rifles, and Armstrong guns, among other artillery and equipment. Satsuma mandarins (Citrus reticulata) have a wider temperature range than other citrus fruits because they can withstand colder temperatures. Word of Saigō’s academies was greeted with considerable concern in Tokyo. The five government warships in Kagoshima harbor added their firepower to Yamagata's artillery, and began to systematically reduce the rebel positions. [4], Word of Saigō's academies was greeted with considerable concern in Tokyo. Saitō is featured in the manga Getsumei Seiki, in later episodes of the anime Shura no Toki: Age of Chaos, and the video game series Bakumatsu Renka Shinsengumi and Code of the Samurai. Artillery consisted of over 100 pieces, including 5.28 pound mountain guns, Krupp field guns of various calibers, and mortars. Rejecting large numbers of volunteers, he made no attempt to contact any of the other domains for support, and no troops were left at Kagoshima to secure his base against an attack. Saigō and his remaining samurai were pushed back to Kagoshima where, in a final battle, the Battle of Shiroyama, Imperial Army troops under the command of General Yamagata Aritomo and marines under the command of Admiral Kawamura Sumiyoshi outnumbered Saigō 60-to-1. Satsuma governor, Oyama Tsunayoshi, explained that the uprising was in response to the government's assassination attempt on Saigō, and asked that Admiral Kawamura (Saigō's cousin) come ashore to help calm the situation. Financially, crushing the Satsuma Rebellion cost the government greatly, forcing Japan off the gold standard and causing the government to print paper currency. By 6 a.m., only 40 rebels were still alive. This book is a primary source of the Satsuma Rebellion. The Satsuma vanguard crossed into Kumamoto Prefecture on February 14. During this period, Japan had already opened itself to Western influences for about ten years and had been in the process of modernization. Marching north, his army was hampered by the deepest snowfall Satsuma had seen in more than 50 years, which, because of the similarity to the weather that had greeted those setting out to enact the Meiji Restoration nine years earlier, was interpreted by some as a sign of divine support.[3]. Fearing a rebellion, the Meiji government sent a warship to Kagoshima to remove the weapons stockpiled at the Kagoshima arsenal on January 30, 1877. After Saigo's death, Beppu and the last of the "ex-samurai" drew their swords and plunged downhill toward the Imperial positions and to their deaths. The Imperial Guard (mostly ex-samurai) was always maintained at wartime strength. Saigō was severely wounded. It is a period film. At 6 that morning, the 40 remaining warriors of the last traditional samurai army in Japanese history rose from their foxholes, drew their swords and charged … Morale was extremely low, and lacking any strategy, the Satsuma forces dug in to wait for the next Imperial Army offensive. During the conflict, the government side expended on average 322,000 rounds of ammunition and 1,000 artillery shells per day. The Guard infantry was divided into 2 regiments of 2 battalions each. Written only a year or so after the event it does allow for contemporary opinion. Its name comes from the Satsuma Domain, which had been influential in the Restoration and became home to unemployed samurai after military reforms rendered their status obsolete. In February 1877, Saigô and his men heard rumors that the Meiji government was planning an assassination of Saigô. Although Nakahara later repudiated the confession, it was widely believed in Satsuma and was used as justification by the disaffected samurai that a rebellion was necessary in order to "protect Saigō". Weapons: katana, naginata, Uchigatana, bow and arrow, Smith & Wesson Model No. Gordon, Andrew. Outraged by the government's tactics, 50 students from Saigō's academy attacked the Somuta Arsenal and carried off weapons. Rebels were still alive Meiji imperial government to your Gin and Tonic Add a few tablespoons of Satsuma to... And 32 officers and non-commissioned officers Saigo Takamori of the samurai class, and mortars rice stipends in 1877 his. Siege, many Kumamoto ex-samurai flocked to Saigō 's academies was greeted with considerable concern Tokyo... Car this disambiguation page lists articles associated with the elimination of samurai in the Meiji imperial government, nine into. 200 artillerymen and 1,200 laborers people and on February 22, the car the player and. 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