=  Williams purchased Pawtuxeton the north sid… … By 1784, Rhode Island enacted a law that provided for the gradual emancipation of slaves, so children born to slaves would no longer be property of their masters but instead would be temporary “apprentices,” girls becoming free at 18 and boys at 21. Gina Raimondo announced that she would, by executive order, shorten the name to “State of Rhode Island” on documents and displays wherever she had the authority to do it, ironically speaking at a podium emblazoned with the state seal still retaining “Providence Plantations.” (Two days later, the seal was temporarily patched up with masking tape.) It was founded by Roger Williams. The original settlements were at Providence, Warwick, Newport, and Portsmouth, and the territory was expanded by purchasing land from the Narragansetts westward toward Connecticut and the smaller islands in Narrangasett Bay. The rule of Andros was extremely unpopular, especially in Massachusetts. Franklin, Wayne (2012). Other parts of Rhode Island made money by exporting agricultural and food products, selling maple syrup, livestock, rum, whiskey, and beer. Block Island was settled in 1637 after the Pequot War, became a part of the colony in 1664, and was incorporated in 1672 as New Shoreham. Slaves were introduced at this time, although there is no record of any law re-legalizing slave holding. display: none !important; The "Providence Plantations" in the state's official name comes from the settlement founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, which now includes the state's capital, Providence… The "Providence Plantations" in the state's official name comes from the settlement founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, which now includes the … The 1688 Glorious Revolution deposed James II and brought William III and Mary II to the English throne; Massachusetts authorities conspired in April 1689 to have Andros arrested and sent back to England. When the parliamentary charter was finally replaced in 1663 by a royal charter, it recognized “our Island called Rhode Island and the rest of the Colonie of Providence Plantations.”. [24] After William Coddington and a group of 13 other men bought Aquidneck Island from Narragansett Indians in 1639, the population of Newport, Rhode Island grew from 96 in 1640 to 7,500 in 1760 (making Newport the fifth-largest city in the Thirteen Colonies at the time),[25][26] and Newport grew further to 9,209 by 1774. [32][39] In February 1784, the Rhode Island General Assembly passed a gradual emancipation law that increased the ratio of the free black population in Rhode Island to 78 percent by the 1790 U.S. Census and that would ultimately eliminate slavery in Rhode Island by 1842. [14], The bedrock of the economy continued to be agriculture – especially dairy farming – and fishing; lumber and shipbuilding also became major industries. Both settlements were situated on Rhode Island (Aquidneck). Some tribes, including the Wampanoag, Nipmuck, Narragansett, and Pocumtuck fought against the English settlers, while other tribes, including the Mohegan and Mohawk, fought with the English settlers. In the final decision, a portion of Tiverton was awarded to Massachusetts to become part of Fall River, and eastern Pawtucket and East Providence were awarded to Rhode Island. Under its provisional president Joseph Dudley, the disputed "King's Country" (present-day Washington County) was brought into the dominion, and the rest of the colony was brought under dominion control by Governor Sir Edmund Andros. But Rhode Island didn’t just have slaves, it had disproportionately more than the other New England colonies. The traditional New England custom of “warning out” anyone poor and indigent so they did not become a public charge was practiced by many towns: in 1750, only 5% of those “warned out” were black, but this rose to 22% by 1790 and 50% by 1800; those exiled from towns were not strangers, as 37% had lived there for at least five years and 26% for at least 10 years. Members of the historical society did, but they assured me that slavery in Rhode Island had been brief and benign, involving only the best families, who behaved with genteel kindness. In the definitive classic on the subject, The Negro in Colonial New England, Lorenzo Greene in 1942 gave specific numbers. In part because, during the American Revolution, the British offered freedom to any slave who could escape to their lines, an effort to sabotage the revolutionist economy. [11], Rhode Island remained at peace with local Indians, but the relationship was more strained between other New England colonies and certain tribes and sometimes led to bloodshed, despite attempts by the Rhode Island leadership to broker peace. [38] By the American Revolutionary War, only 2 percent of the New England colonial labor force were bonded or convict laborers and another 2 percent were black slaves, while 9 percent of the colonial black population in New England were free persons of color (as compared with only 3 percent in the Southern Colonies). Nevertheless, this was explicitly not chattel slavery of the kind that would be practiced centuries later, especially because the children of the indentured servants were not themselves bound. [30], Puritan mass migration to New England began following the issuance of the royal charter for the Massachusetts Bay Company by Charles I of England in 1629 and continued until the beginning of the English Civil War in 1642, while following the war's conclusion in 1651, immigration to New England leveled off and the population growth owed almost entirely to natural increase rather than immigration or slave importations for the remainder of the 17th century and through the 18th century. On November 3, 2020, Rhode Island voters will consider an amendment to the state constitution to remove “Providence Plantations” from the state name. Here's Why It Was Ignored", "Letter from Certain Citizens of Rhode Island to the Federal Convention", HISTORICAL CENSUS STATISTICS ON POPULATION TOTALS BY RACE, 1790 TO 1990, AND BY HISPANIC ORIGIN, 1970 TO 1990, FOR THE UNITED STATES, REGIONS, DIVISIONS, AND STATES, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Colony_of_Rhode_Island_and_Providence_Plantations&oldid=996373301, Former British colonies and protectorates in the Americas, States and territories established in 1636, 1776 disestablishments in the British Empire, 1636 establishments in the British Empire, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2011, Rhode Island articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Other British colonial entities in the contemporary, Non-British colonial entities in the contemporary United States. Rhode Island's northern border with Massachusetts also underwent a number of changes. While the official state name includes “Providence Plantations” in reference to the mainland colony founded by Roger Williams in 1636, Raimondo said … [24] In 1774, Indians accounted for 1,479 of the inhabitants of the colony (or 3 percent). Rhode Island has dropped “Providence Plantations” from its official state name, according to The Associated Press. "Providence plantation" refers to the original settlement founded by Roger Williams in the 1600s, … The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the original Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. The name change was previously put to a vote in 2010, with 78% of state voters opposing the removal of the “Providence Plantations” title, CBS News reported. The notion of a plantation has changed through history, from the medieval Latin “planting” to a settlement or farm when the Pilgrims founded Plimoth Plantation … )[2] Williams named the islands in the Narragansett Bay after Christian virtues: Patience, Prudence, and Hope Islands. They argued “Providence Plantations” was history worth preserving. Roger Williams founded a settlement called Providence Plantations in 1636, while Anne Hutchinson and her followers founded a separate settlement a year later, on what is now Aquidneck Island, but … Rhode Island voters will decide on Election Day whether or not to remove the phrase “Providence Plantations” from the state’s official name. The Providence Plantations were the first white settlements in Rhode Island. .hide-if-no-js { Several considerations probably motivated this action, including a desire to use proceeds from sales to compensate those, including Williams, who suffered property losses incurred in the destruction of the city, but also to avoid setting the captives free where they could, the settlers feared, resume the war. [28] By 1750, the number of regular places of worship in Rhode Island grew to 50 (30 Baptist, 12 Congregational, 7 Anglican, and 1 Jewish),[29] with the colony gaining an additional 5 regular places of worship by 1776 (26 Baptist, 11 Friends, 9 Congregational, 5 Episcopal, 1 Jewish, 1 New Light Congregational, 1 Presbyterian, and 1 Sandemanian). Required fields are marked *. As Raimondo stated in her Executive Order 20-48, “many of the State’s residents find it painful that a word so closely associated with slavery should appear in the official name of the State.” The current objection to the word “plantation” is based upon visceral upset, not history. [17] It boycotted the 1787 convention that drew up the United States Constitution,[18] and initially refused to ratify it. What happened to freed slaves? Roger Williams was a Puritan theologian and linguist who founded Providence Plantations in 1636 on land given to him by Narragansett sachem Canonicus. The founder of Providence, Roger Williams, had a background in the law courts of England, having clerked for the most famous lawyer and judge of the day, Edward Coke, and their relationship took on the character almost of father and son, Coke thinking so highly of Williams’ ability that he paid for his formal education. But the order would shorten it to just “Rhode Island”. The clergyman Roger Williams, banished by the General Court of Massachusetts Bay for propagating "new and dangerous opinions," founded the Providence Plantations in June 1636. I’ve come to see it like the swastika: no matter how true it is that the symbol is 2,500 years old and the word “swastika” literally means in Sanskrit “there is well-being,” its adoption in 1920 by Adolf Hitler makes it impossible today to see a swastika without one’s first thought being of Nazism. During the 1600s, most slavery in New England, including Rhode Island, was of Native American Indians, reaching a climax after King Philip’s War in 1675-1676, which historians today view as a civil war involving complicated internecine competition among various English settlers and indigenous tribes over resources such as land. The two arguments played out in voting booths – and, in the case of Donal and Marlene Fahey, of … The phrase, which has … The word “plantation” has come to be associated with Southern slavery, where first tobacco in the 1700s and later cotton in the 1800s were the cash crops that formed the basis of the entire regional economy, an agricultural engine entirely dependent upon vast quantities of slave labor, the larger operations requiring hundreds of enslaved people. Roger Williams knew both Metacom (Philip) and Canonchet as children. Our state’s official full name is “The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.” Supporters of the proposed name change want to drop “Providence Plantations,” claiming the name itself conjures up images of slavery. The Navigation Acts passed in the 1660s were widely disliked, since merchants often found themselves trapped and at odds with the rules. The exact origin of the "plantation" name is unclear. [5], In 1651, William Coddington obtained a separate charter from England setting up the Coddington Commission, which made him life governor of the islands of Rhode Island and Conanicut in a federation with Connecticut Colony and Massachusetts Bay Colony. ^ https://thehill.com/homenews/state-watch/524430-rhode-island-voters-officially-drop-providence-plantations-from-state 1. For the state of Rhode Island , years of acrimony over an official designation with connotations of slavery. [6], Following the 1660 restoration of royal rule in England, it was necessary to gain a Royal Charter from King Charles II. House Speaker Nicholas Mattiello attracted quite a lot of attention when he questioned that fact in a radio interview on Friday, June 19: “Quite frankly, I have to educate myself, because I originally did not think we had actual slavery in Rhode Island, and that may not be accurate.” The Providence Journal reported that he was “forced to backpedal.” Before we pile onto the public ridicule of Mattiello as an ignoramous, it is worth quoting Joanne Pope Melish (whose PhD is from Brown) in her 1998 book, Disowning Slavery: In Connecticut in the 1950s, when I was growing up, the only slavery discussed in my history textbook was southern; New Englanders had marched south to end slavery. [19] It relented after Congress sent a series of constitutional amendments to the states for ratification, the Bill of Rights guaranteeing specific personal freedoms and rights; clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings; and explicit declarations that all powers not specifically delegated to Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people. She also supported asking voters to formally change the name by constitutional amendment at the November election, although that was overwhelmingly rejected in 2010. As I noted elsewhere, the Boy Scouts started using the swastika on badges and medals in 1911, but stopped in 1934 shortly after the Nazis got into power in Germany. [4], The second plantation settlement on the mainland was Samuel Gorton's Shawomet Purchase from the Narragansetts in 1642. Rhode Island never had large farms on the scale of slave plantations in the South, but it certainly did have slaves. As soon as Gorton settled at Shawomet, however, the Massachusetts Bay authorities laid claim to his territory and acted to enforce their claim. Prove that you are human * In gratitude, he changed the name of Shawomet Plantation to Warwick. Some of the tribes who sided with the settlers during the war acquired captives from the defeated tribes as slaves. It was in Rhode Island, where I lived after 1964, that I first stumbled across an obscure reference to local slavery, but almost no one I asked knew anything about it. Pioneers “planted” … [citation needed] With this event, the dominion collapsed and Rhode Island resumed its previous government. [7][8] During King Philip's War (1675–1676), both sides regularly violated Rhode Island's neutrality. Coke was so influential that he was cited and quoted, 130 years after his death, by the American revolutionaries arguing the invalidity of the Stamp Act and writing the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights, the latter incorporating ideas first enunciated by Coke such as the right to remain silent and the right to be secure against warrantless searches and seizures. Successfully ending a campaign that began over 10 years ago, a referendum to remove “Providence Plantations” from the state name of Rhode Island passed on Tuesday with a vote of 52.9 percent approval, according to the Rhode Island Board of Elections.Rhode Island is the first state to change its name without a change of territory, according to the website of Vote Yes on One, an … Story at a glance. Overlapping charters had awarded an area extending three miles inland to both Plymouth and Rhode Island east of Narragansett Bay; this area was awarded to Rhode Island in 1741, establishing Rhode Island's jurisdiction over Barrington, Warren, Bristol, Tiverton, and Little Compton which Massachusetts had claimed. From 1640 to 1774, the population of Rhode Island grew from 300 to 59,607,[22][23] and would decline during the American Revolutionary War to 52,946 in 1780. But, the history of how we got this name is often forgotten,” the petition reads. June 24, 2020 / 11:44 AM / CBS News The state of Rhode Island is moving to change its official name — "The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations" — due … Why the decrease? Although there were about 4,400 blacks in Rhode Island in 1790, by 1800 the number of slaves was 384 and by 1840 only 5. [7][8], In the 1680s, Charles II sought to streamline administration of the English colonies and to more closely control their trade. Your email address will not be published. Massachusetts surveyed this line in 1642, but subsequent surveys by Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut agreed that it was placed too far south. Your email address will not be published. I covered her presentation and posted a full video recording for Motif (facebook.com/watch/live/?v=721721038645901). During winter they had very harsh weather and cold summers ranging from 70 to the mid 70’s. Charles was a Catholic sympathizer in staunchly Protestant England, and he approved of the colony's promise of religious freedom. Rhode Island’s mouthful of a name is the result of the state’s dual origins. Samuel Gorton and others remained to establish the settlement of Portsmouth (which formerly was Pocasset) in 1638, while Coddington and Clarke established nearby Newport in 1639. State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, American Revolutionary War §Background and political developments, List of colonial governors of Rhode Island, https://thehill.com/homenews/state-watch/524430-rhode-island-voters-officially-drop-providence-plantations-from-state, "How 'Providence Plantations' and Rhode Island were joined", "A Chronological History of Remarkable Events, in the Settlement and Growth of Providence", "America's First Anti-Slavery Statute Was Passed in 1652. Rhode Island's early compacts did not stipulate the boundary on the eastern shore of Narrangansett Bay, and did not include any of Washington County, land that belonged to the Narragansett people. In 1708, according to Greene, the population of the colony was 7,181, including 426 black and 56 white “servants.” Greene assumes that all of the black “servants” were actually slaves, which is probably correct, especially because the black population is concentrated in the ports where the slave trading ships were based: Newport had a total population of 2,203, including 220 black and 20 white “servants,” while Providence had a total population of 1,446, including 7 black and 6 white “servants.” Unless Greene is correct about the black “servants” being either entirely or at least overwhelmingly slaves, it is difficult to understand why the black population of Newport was 9.9% but of Providence was 0.4%. Towns in Rhode Island, years of acrimony over an official designation with connotations of slavery informing the Governor Massachusetts. Metacom ( Philip ) and Canonchet as children by letters patent from the English.! 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