Share Your PPT File. Use of biotechnology to treat pollution problems is not a new idea. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Continuing problems of pollution, loss of forget, solid waste disposal, degradation of environment, issues like economic productivity and national security, Global warming, Industrial companies are developing processes with reduced environmental impact responding to the international call for the development of a sustainable society. Content Guidelines 2. During biological treatment soil microorganisms convert organic pollutants to CO2, water and biomass. The first approved application of biotechnology to animal production was the use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (BST) in dairy cows. Exchange of genetic information via plasmids is achieved by the process of conjugation. Genes which code for metabolism of environmental pollutants such as PCB’s and other xenobiotic compounds are frequently, although not always, located on plasmids. => Intensive and Extensive Technologies. environment. However, the focus in environmental biotechnology for fighting different pollution is on bioremediation. Applications of these methods are cheaper, faster and also portable. Ex situ treatment involves excavating the soil and treating it above ground, either as compost, in soil banks, or in specialised slurry bioreactors. 8 Main Areas of Environmental Biotechnology, Top 6 Fungal Products Obtained from Fungal Biotechnology. Environmental biotechnology is a huge and fast growing field with increasing relevance for a sustainable development through protection of environment to production of biomaterials. Expanding industrial activities have added more contaminants in the air. When the gene is “amplified” the bacterial cells produce large quantities of human insulin that are purified and used to treat diabetes in human beings. In many cases, these sources have been rendered unsafe for human consumption as well as for other activities such as irrigation and industrial needs. Lipomyces sp. Environmental Biotechnology, EB Study Materials, Engineering Class handwritten notes, exam notes, previous year questions, PDF free download The field of environmental biotechnology has revolutionized the study of the life-forms which have not been studied earlier and DNA. In this process the environmental conditions for the biological degradation of organic pollutants are optimized as far as possible. INTRODUCTION Environmental biotechnology is biotechnology that is applied to and used to study the natural environment. Environmental biotechnologists are cross-disciplinary experts, creating new products at the molecular level and then analyzing the relationship they develop with our environment. The increasing amounts of fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals applied to soils and industrial and domestic waste-disposal practices, led to the increasing concern of soil pollution. By combining different metabolic abilities in the same microorganism blockage in environmental cleanup may be circumvented. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. Environmental biotechnology can simply be described as "the optimal use of nature, in the form of plants, animals, bacteria, fungi and algae, to produce renewable energy, food and nutrients in a synergistic integrated cycle of profit making processes where the waste of each process becomes the feedstock for another process". Microorganisms are crucial participants in cleaning up a large variety of hazardous substances/chemicals by transforming them into forms that are harmless to people and environment. Pollution in soil is caused by persistent toxic compounds, chemicals, salts, radioactive materials, or disease-causing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health. and Xanthomonas sp. The Class 12 Biology Environmental Issues Revision Notes have been crafted by the subject matter experts who are aware of the latest changes in the CBSE curriculum and have designed the notes accordingly. Share Your Word File Scope for Use of Environmental Biotechnology, Modalities and local influences - Environmental Biotechnology, Immobilisation, Degradation or Monitoring of Pollutants from a Biological Origin, Genetic blueprint for metabolic capability, Metabolic Pathways of Particular Relevance to Environmental Biotechnology, Macromolecules - description and degradation, Photosynthesis and the Basis of Phytotechnology, Using Biological Systems - Biological Intervention, Xenobiotics and Other Problematic Chemicals, Endocrine disrupters - Biological Intervention, New discoveries - Biological Intervention, Classifying Pollution - Environmental Biotechnology, Dilution and dispersal - Pollution Control Strategies, Concentration and containment - Pollution Control Strategies, Practical Applications to Pollution Control, Biofilters - Practical Applications to Pollution Control, Biotrickling filters - Practical Applications to Pollution Control, Bioscrubbers - Practical Applications to Pollution Control, Other options - Practical Applications to Pollution Control, Factors Affecting the use of Bioremediation, Essential Features of Biological Treatment Systems, Site monitoring for biotechnological applications, Process selection and integration - Contaminated Land and Bioremediation, Limits to land application - Sewage Treatment, Aeration: Diffused air systems, Mechanical aeration, Deep Shaft Process - Aerobes and Effluents, Hyperaccumulation - Metal Phytoremediation, Phytostabilisation - Metal Phytoremediation, Phytodegradation - Organic Phytoremediation, Rhizodegradation - Organic Phytoremediation, Phytovolatilisation - Organic Phytoremediation, Anaerobic Digestion and digestion process, Applying Anaerobic Digestion(AD) to Waste Management, Training: Manipulation of Bacteria Without Genetic Engineering, Manipulation of Bacteria by Genetic Engineering, Enzymes, solutions and equipment - Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering, DNA for transfer - Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering, Cloning vectors - Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering, Expression vectors - Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering, Reporter genes - Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering, Analysis of Recombinants: Bacteria, Yeast, Viruses, Examples of developments in plant GE(Genetic Engineering), Short rotation coppicing - Derived Biofuels, Biotechnology Integrated Agricultural Applications, Plant disease suppression - Biotechnology Integrated Agricultural Applications, Microbial pesticides - Biotechnology Integrated Agricultural Applications, Plant/microbe interactions - Biotechnology Integrated Agricultural Applications, Symbiotic nitrogen fixation - Biotechnology Integrated Agricultural Applications, Plant pathogens: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Cauliflower mosaic virus. Environmental biotechnology could also imply that one try to harness biological process for commercial uses and exploitation. Research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of exploitable microorganisms is rapidly being translated into commercially available technologies for reversing and preventing further deterioration of the earth’s environment. Environmental biotechnology can be used to detect, prevent and remediate the emission of pollutants into the environment in a number of ways. Privacy Policy3. Microbes can be of natural origin, cultivated or even genetically engineered. Food processing has benefited from biotechnologically produced chymosin which is used in cheese manufacture; alpha-amylase, which is used in production of high-fructose corn syrup and dry beer; and lactase, which is added to milk to reduce the lactose content for persons with lactose intolerance. Blanco et al. A biosensor is an analytical device that converts a biological response into an physical, chemical or electrical signal. With the continued increase in the use of chemicals, energy and non-renewable resources by an expanding global population, associated environmental problems are also increasing. The need for sustainable development is a key to the future of mankind. Advanced Course Environmental Biotechnology. In the recent years enzymes have played important roles in the production of drugs, fine chemicals, amino acids, antibiotics and steroids. Certain bacteria thrive on the chemical components of waste products. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Revision Notes. For example, the US Department of Agriculture’s Biotechnology Regulatory Services program and Animal and Plant The use of restriction enzymes has enabled the isolation of particular DNA fragments that can be transferred to another organism lacking the same. environmental biotechnology (btk 4401) 4(3+1) assessment test 1 20% test 2 20% amali 15% assignment (scl) 10% final 35% assessment test 1 20% test 2 20% ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 42c908-YmYxZ => Contaminated Land and Bioremediation. For instance, decomposing garbage in landfills and solid waste disposal sites emits methane gas, and many household products give off VOCs. Share Your PDF File Human insulin, the first genetically engineered product to be produced commercially (1982) is made by nonvirulent strain of Escherichia coli bacteria, by introduction of a copy of the gene for human insulin. c) Secondary treatment – bio-oxidize organic materials by activities of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. M.Sc. (2003). A treatment plant at the Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, purifies 4 million gallons of cyanide-containing wastewater a day by completely converting cyanide to nitrate. These exclusively designed organisms do not get a chance to experience the various fluctuating environmental conditions which is faced by naturally occurring organisms during the evolutionary processes spaning millions of years. In this way environmental biotechnology can make a significant contribution to sustainable development. The possibility of genetic transfer in non-biodegradative microbes has opened a new outlook of bio treatment of wastes. Biotechnology techniques are being applied to plants to produce plant materials with improved composition, functional characteristics. Biological, organic and inorganic pollutants contaminate the water bodies. The vast majority of bioremediation applications use naturally occurring microorganisms to identify and filter toxic waste before it is introduced into the environment or to clean up existing pollution problems. d) Tertiary treatment – specific pollutants are removed (ammonia and phosphate). Plasmids are circular strands of DNA that replicates as separate entities independent of the host chromosome. Photo-bioreactors are currently used to grow algae and cyanobacteria under closely controlled environmental conditions, with a view to making high-value products (such as beta-carotene and gamma-linoleic acid), designing efficient effluent treatment processes, and providing new energy sources. 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