In 1997, an organization known as the National Wilderness Institute petitioned the U.S. Under the MBTA, taking, killing, or possessing migratory birds is unlawful. (14) Comment: Several commenters stated concerns that drought and invasion of fire-tolerant nonnative grasses pose a threat to Hawaiian hawk habitat by increasing fire frequency and intensity. The available information on Hawaiian hawk distribution and habitat does not suggest that dry forests on the island of Hawaii are losing trees essential for Hawaiian hawk nesting and perching, or that such loss is likely to occur in the foreseeable future (e.g., Puu Waawaa watershed, see “Urbanization/Lack of Secure Habitat,” above). ); however, the Jatropha curcas production was phased out, and Pacific Biodiesel has since purchased the farm and now grows papaya on it (Long 2018, pers. (13) Comment: Several commenters stated concerns that planned growth for renewable energy production in Hawaii County may negatively affect Hawaiian hawk habitat and that wind energy production by on-shore wind turbines could cause Hawaiian hawk mortality. Fish and Wildlife Service is removing the ’io, or Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius), from the endangered … The term foreseeable future extends only so far into the future as the Services can reasonably determine that both the future threats and the species' responses to those threats are likely. In preparing this final rule, we reviewed and fully considered all comments we received during all five comment periods from the peer reviewers, State, and public on the proposed delisting rule. 2008, pp. 21-27; Berger 1981, p. 79; USFWS 1984, pp. At a regional scale, we do not anticipate significant changes in hawk densities in response to this threat because many of the plantations are patchily distributed among areas with suitable habitat for foraging, perching, and nesting (e.g., small agricultural operations, fallow sugarcane fields, riparian areas, and native and nonnative forest). Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed several times—most recently in 2014—taking the Hawaiian Hawk off the endangered species list. Over this time period, the number of land parcels less than 1 acre (ac) (0.4 hectare (ha)) in size increased almost three-fold from 25,925 to 74,620 parcels. We also examined the potential for the cumulative impact of such unsubstantive threats to be greater than the impact from each individual threat. This feature is not available for this document. 102-103; Scott et al. Overview of the species conservation status The Hawaiian Hawk (Buteo solitaris), locally known as “ ‘Io,” is a relatively small bird of prey endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. To enforce the MBTA, authorized Department of the Interior employees may: Without a warrant, arrest a person violating the MBTA in the employee's presence or view; execute a warrant or other process issued by an officer or court to enforce the MBTA; and search any place with a warrant. Otherwise, we will monitor the species as described in the final PDM plan. A comparison of island-wide survey data in 2007 to similar data from 1998 to 1999 indicates that the population numbers, densities, and spatial distribution of Hawaiian hawks on the island of Hawaii did not significantly change over the span of a decade. Since that time the population has remained low, but relatively stable. Sia received the two birds in 2015 from the Memphis Zoo, and in 2016, the Hawaiian hawk pair produced the first-ever Hawaiian hawk chick to hatch in captivity (USFWS 2017, in litt. Once lava cools, native plants quickly recolonize through a process called primary succession, which refers to the progressive establishment of vegetation on a barren substrate (e.g., lava flow or glacial retreat). Rather, we must then undertake a more detailed analysis of the other prong to make that determination. 2008, p. 1). One peer reviewer stated that the rule could be substantially improved in several ways to make our analysis more clear. comm.). Our approach to analyzing SPR in this determination is consistent with the court's holding in Desert Survivors v. Department of the Interior, No. HAWAIIAN HAWK Buteo solitarius Other: 'Io monotypic native resident, endemic, endangered The Hawaiian Hawk is endemic to the Southeastern Hawaiian Islands, currently breeding only on Hawai’i I (AOU 1998, Clarkson and Laniawe 2000, Klavitter 2009). Because we do not believe that the historical range of the Hawaiian hawk included other islands, we do not find it appropriate to reintroduce Hawaiian hawks outside of its known native range. Some forest loss in the Kona region was in areas zoned for agricultural use, and large residential-type homes were built in recently cleared areas. The Service published a … 668dd(a)(2)). Now it’s the Hawaiian hawk… For additional discussion, see Future Conservation Measures, below. The OFR/GPO partnership is committed to presenting accurate and reliable We acknowledge that there may be unanticipated impacts on the Hawaiian hawk associated with climate change; however, as outlined in our Post Delisting Monitoring Plan, we will be monitoring the Hawaiian hawk and its habitat for five 5-years cycles, which will begin in 2024. When this rule is effective (see DATES, above), shooting of Hawaiian hawks will remain illegal under both the MBTA and Hawaii State law. Following its first meeting in December 1997, the IRWG forwarded a report to the Service, in which they recommended that, rather than focusing primarily on abundance to assess the Hawaiian hawk's overall status, field studies should look at hawk numbers in combination with trends (IRWG 1998, p. 4). comm.) 13, 37; Klavitter 2003, pp. For instance, when the agency announced in December that the nene, Hawaii’s state bird, was being downlisted from endangered to threatened, the Center for Biological Diversity proclaimed the nene a “recovery success story.”. The Hawaiian hawk has maintained viability while experiencing varying degrees of habitat destruction or modification (urbanization, agriculture, nonnative plant and animal species, fire, drought, climate change, volcanic eruption, and ROD); overutilization of the species for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes (shooting); disease (avian pox and avian malaria) or predation (nonnative rats, mice, mongoose, cats, and dogs); inadequate regulatory mechanisms; and other natural or manmade factors (small range, single-island endemism, wind turbines, and contaminants and pesticides). The Present or Threatened Destruction, Modification, or Curtailment of Its Habitat or Range, Conversion of Sugarcane Fields to Unsuitable Habitat, Invasive Plant Species, Drought, and Increase in Fire Frequency, Environmental Changes in Response to Climate Change, Invasive Species (Nonnative Feral Ungulates), Invasive Species (Nonnative Pathogens of Native Forest Pillar Species), Conservation Actions That Benefit the Hawaiian Hawk and its Habitat, B. Overutilization for Commercial, Recreational, Scientific, or Educational Purposes, D. The Inadequacy of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms, E. Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Its Continued Existence, Status Throughout a Significant Portion of Its Range, PART 17—ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS, https://www.federalregister.gov/d/2019-27339, MODS: Government Publishing Office metadata. 12/31/2019 at 8:45 am. This information is not part of the official Federal Register document. While nonnative feral ungulates and the aforementioned diseases do impact ohia forest habitat, the Hawaiian hawk has adapted to use both native, nonnative, and mixed forest habitats for both nesting and hunting. 1994, p. 23; Hall et al. Additionally, we examined the effects of a drying climate and drought on Hawaiian hawk habitat, as discussed in our October 30, 2018, Federal Register publication (83 FR 54561) to reopen the proposed delisting rule's comment period, and have subsequently added to our discussions in this rule under “Invasive Plant Species, Drought, and Increase in Fire Frequency” and “Invasive Species (Concealing Prey)” as it pertains to strawberry guava. 2008, entire; U.S. Drought Monitor-Hawaii Data 2019, entire), the introduction of nonnative plants and animals, changes in forest species composition, changes in prey species, and ongoing human development and agricultural practices (Gorresen et al. ; U.S. Drought Monitor 2019, in litt. On the island of Hawaii, primary succession usually starts with lichens and fungi, followed by ferns and then ohia trees and other native plants (Kitayama et al. It is expected that a noticeable decrease in the spread of strawberry guava will be observed over a period of years (Kerr 2018, pers. Thus, the population trend appears to be stable. We reviewed all comments we received from the peer reviewers for substantive issues and new information regarding the proposed delisting of the Hawaiian hawk. Courtesy Hawaii Department of Public Safety, Stay Up To Date On The Coronavirus And Other Hawaii Issues. The Hawaiian Hawk was listed as endangered in 1967. (2003, p. 173), and Gorresen et al. documents in the last year, 962 The first detailed study of the ecology and life history of the Hawaiian hawk was conducted from 1980 to 1982 (Griffin 1985, entire). Their breeding distribution is restricted to the island of Hawaii, but there have been at least eight observations of vagrant individuals on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui since 1778 (Banko 1980, pp. Section 4(b) of the Act requires that the determination be made “solely on the basis of the best scientific and commercial data available.” Therefore, recovery criteria should help indicate when we would anticipate that an analysis of the five threat factors under section 4(a)(1) would result in a determination that the species is no longer an endangered species or threatened species because of any of the five statutory factors (see Summary of Factors Affecting the Species, below). 1503 & 1507. There was also no evidence the hawk was affected by introduced mammalian predators, such as cats, rats, or mongoose, or environmental contaminants such as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) (Griffin 1985, pp. Will you consider becoming a new donor today? A species is “endangered” for purposes of the Act if it is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range, and is “threatened” if it is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. ; U.S. Drought Monitor-Hawaii Data 2019, entire), which exacerbate the risk of fire; however, the Hawaiian hawk population has remained stable and viable. About the Federal Register Staff Writer Elijah Kahula Graphics by Leah Wyzykowski. Congress established Hawaii National Park (later to become, separately, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and Haleakala National Park) on August 1, 1916 (39 Stat. In 2013, one Hawaiian hawk was observed at the Hawi wind facility. However, the Hawaiian hawk is adaptable to a variety of habitats and is relatively abundant and widespread in suitable habitat on much of the island, making it resilient to random demographic fluctuations or localized catastrophes (e.g., volcanic eruption). The PDM plan is designed to verify that the Hawaiian hawk remains secure from the risk of extinction after delisting by detecting changes in its status and habitat throughout its known range. Although drought frequency and duration may increase in Hawaii due to climate change (Chu et al. (1997, entire), Klavitter et al. FWS-R1-ES-2007-0024, or upon request from the Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see ADDRESSES). corresponding official PDF file on govinfo.gov. 2011, in litt.). Under the Act, a threatened species is any species that is “likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.” 15 U.S.C. 2003, p. 172). 2014, p. 2). Its status as an endangered species was retained under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act; 16 U.S.C. Because both native and nonnative plants persist despite multiple eruptions and periods of high vog emissions, we conclude that vog is not detrimental to plant species that contribute toward or support (e.g., native-mixed forest) Hawaiian hawks and, therefore, does not constitute not a threat to the survival of the Hawaiian hawk. While wind turbines kill numerous bird and bat species across the United States (Hutchins 2016, in litt. HRS 195-1 requires the State to protect and preserve indigenous species of marine and terrestrial animals and plants. The results prompted the Service to publish a proposed rule to delist the Hawaiian hawk, due to recovery and new information, on August 6, 2008 (73 FR 45680), with a 60-day comment period that closed October 6, 2008. This protection will not be altered by delisting the Hawaiian hawk. Register documents. Of this habitat, 55 percent is zoned for agriculture, and 44.7 percent is zoned for conservation. We anticipate that in these localized, patchily distributed areas where eucalyptus plantations are established, Hawaiian hawks will not be able to effectively forage or nest. Register, and does not replace the official print version or the official We have determined that the Hawaiian hawk has recovered and no longer meets the definition of an endangered species or a threatened species under the Act. In 2008, while George W. Bush was in the White House, the agency resurrected the Institute’s request and proposed a rule to remove the Hawaiian hawk from the endangered species list. New Documents These tools are designed to help you understand the official document There are other reasons why the Hawaiian Hawk… In 2003, Hawaii Volcanoes NP, in collaboration with TNC, added the 115,828-ac (46,874-ha) Kahuku Unit (previously Kahuku Ranch), increasing the park's size by 50 percent (Martin 2003, in litt.). Subdivision of large land parcels in to smaller parcels is often viewed as synonymous with development. Furthermore, there are a number of introduced birds (e.g., house sparrows and house finches) and mosquitoes (e.g., Culex quinquefasciatus) that could support WNV amplification in Hawaii and transport it from low to middle to high elevations (Marra et al. Hawaii is so large that all of the other Hawaiian islands could fit into the boundaries of the island. Additionally, we based our analysis on the five factors outlined in section 4 of the Act, as discussed in this rule under Summary of Factors Affecting the Species. 145-146). “This administration has made it abundantly clear that they’re hostile to environmental regulation,” Greenwald said. There was no change in the estimated number of individuals in the population, the range was not contracting, and that Hawaiian hawks occurred in both native and nonnative habitats. 391) and to provide for, “the preservation from injury of all timber, birds, mineral deposits, and natural curiosities or wonders within said park, and their retention in their natural condition as nearly as possible” (16 U.S.C. Where the best available information allows the Services to determine a status for the species rangewide, that determination should be given conclusive weight because a rangewide determination of status more accurately reflects the species' degree of imperilment and better promotes the purposes of the Act. Our Response: During the 1998 to 1999 surveys, movements by Hawaiian hawks in response to playback recordings were observed. The researchers used updated vegetation maps and methods to calculate population and density estimates for the 1998-1999 survey data and the 2007 survey data. This commenter also stated that we did not adhere to either the Act or Administrative Procedure Act. This has led to various management actions to benefit federally listed species, including development of comprehensive conservation plans (CCPs) on NWRs. It measures about 16-18 inches (40-46 cm) in length and has two color phases: a dark phase and a light phase (USFWS). The DLNR also stated concern that it is unclear given current information whether the small Hawaiian hawk population is sufficient to ensure genetic viability into the future, and recommended determining genetic attributes of the species. More recently, the forest industry is shifting away from nonnative tree species to native tree species such as koa (Koch and Walter 2018, in litt.). (28) Comment: Several commenters said the Hawaiian hawk is an aumakua, or family guardian, for some Hawaiian families. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Relay Service at 800-877-8339. When pigeon fanciers may want to harm or harass Hawaiian hawks in Response to climate 2014. ; USGS 2019, entire ) the cultural significance of Hawaiian hawks associated with changes to habitat... 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